Albus Scientia <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Albus Scientia </em>aims to provide a platform to the researchers who intends to publish their work in a quality journal with an efficient peer review system. The journal accepts the full-length research articles, review articles, letters to editor, short communications, and commentaries in the domain of “life sciences, health sciences and biomedical science” that includes but not limited to Animals and Plant Sciences, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, Botany, Cell biology, Developmental Biology, Environmental Sciences, Health, and Epidemiology Concepts in Human, Hematology, Immunology, Medical Sciences, Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Molecular Genetics, Molecular Systematics and Evolution, Nanobiology, Proteins and Proteomics, Physiology, Structure Biology, Toxicity, Virology, Veterinary Sciences, Zoology.</p> Albus Scientific Publisher en-US Albus Scientia 2816-8119 Hypoalbuminemia in COVID-19: Molecular and Mechanistic Approach <p>Hypoalbuminemia is a clinical feature of COVID-19 which is caused by a multitude of processes in COVID-19, including acute liver damage (ALI), oxidative burst, viral-albumin binding, dysregulated immunological responses, and viral genome interference in the host cell, all of which lead to organ failure and patient mortality. We used a mechanistic approach to discuss a number of potential molecular mechanisms that cause hypoalbuminemia, as well as some effective treatment methods. As this study employs molecular approaches to characterize hypoalbuminemia, this work is promising in molecular medicine and drug development.</p> Ali Afzal Sara Shahzaman Arwa Azam Usman Ghani Muhammad Babar Khawar Nimra Afzal Muhammad Idnan Ume Habiba Muhammad Abu Talha Safdar Hashmi Syeda Eisha Hamid Rimsha Naseem Copyright (c) 2023 Ali Afzal, Sara Shahzaman, Arwa Azam, Usman Ghani, Muhammad Babar Khawar, Nimra Afzal, Muhammad Idnan, Ume Habiba, Muhammad Abu Talha Safdar Hashmi, Syeda Eisha Hamid, Rimsha Naseem 2023-06-06 2023-06-06 2023 1 1 11 10.56512/AS.2023.1.e230606 Vitamin D: A Ray of Hope in Combating COVID-19‎ <p>COVID-19, which is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is the current global pandemic. As it spreads at an exponential and precipitous rate, it causes significant organ damage, which can potentially lead to death. Although there appears to be no specific cure or resistance to this outbreak, the use and administration of Vitamin D (VD) supplements is still a viable option, as evidenced by numerous clinical trials, studies, and observations. The results of the previous investigation have revealed that people with COVID-19 had reduced levels of VD, especially those with severe and critical diseases. The arrangement of receptors such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-II) is altered by VD. As a result, it plays an important role in immune system responses to cytokine storms and interleukins. This review aims to uncover and explain how VD might help in combating COVID-19 and possibly hold the key to minimizing its hazard in the light of currently available therapeutic strategies. Finally, we compare and contrast other researcher’s approaches to VD and COVID-19.</p> Abdullah Muhammad Sohail Muhammad Babar Khawar Ali Afzal Muhammad Idnan Sjawal Arshad Ume Habiba Syeda Esha Hamid Sara Shahzaman Nayab Shahid Muhammad Ahsan Ashraf Momna Ramzan Copyright (c) 2023 Abdullah Muhammad Sohail, Muhammad Babar Khawar, Ali Afzal, Muhammad Idnan, Sjawal Arshad, Ume Habiba, Syeda Esha Hamid, Sara Shahzaman, Nayab Shahid, Muhammad Ahsan Ashraf, Momna Ramzan 2023-03-18 2023-03-18 2023 1 1 7 10.56512/AS.2023.1.e230318 BPA; An Endocrine Disruptor Induced Biochemical Changes and Histopathological Damage in the Kidneys of Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Xenoestrogens are chemical compounds that are similar to estrogen in effect but not in structure. Bisphenol A is an endocrine disruptor, that mimics the action of endogenous estrogen and activates the estrogen receptor. It is produced in large volumes and incorporated in many plastic industries worldwide. BPA is extensively used in food and beverages. The ubiquitous and extensive use of BPA containing products results in high human exposure, and its effects on the human body are of great concern. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of BPA on biochemical and histopathological parameters of the kidney.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Forty adult male rats were assigned into five groups of eight rats each. One group was served as a control and other groups were treated with BPA. Rats were administered orally with different doses of BPA 10mg/Kg and 25mg/Kg for 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. All doses of BPA were dissolved in corn oil and orally administered to rats. After 6 and 12 weeks, blood and kidney samples were collected for evaluation of biochemical parameters and histopathological analyses.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Serum levels of urea and creatinine were significantly increased, and uric acid levels in serum were increased but not significantly. The biochemical parameters variations were confirmed by histopathological investigations. BPA induced toxicity may lead to harmful health effects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Results showed that the oral administration of BPA significantly affects biochemical parameters and renal tissue architecture.</p> </div> </div> </div> Naila Hameed Tasleem Akhtar Nadeem Sheikh Copyright (c) 2023 Naila Hameed, Tasleem Akhtar, Nadeem Sheikh 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 2023 1 1 5 10.56512/AS.2023.1.e230628 Alterations in serum Thyroid and Reproductive hormone levels in occupationally exposed pesticides sprayers <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background: </strong>Pesticides contain endocrine disrupting chemicals that have potential to perturb the normal thyroid and reproductive hormone axis. The aim of present study was to estimate the variations in serum tri-iodothyronine (T<sub>3</sub>) tetra-iodothyronine (T<sub>4</sub>) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and testosterone levels in occupationally exposed pesticide sprayers in comparison to controls.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>For this purpose, blood samples of (n=50) pesticide sprayers were collected from District Layyah, south Punjab, Pakistan. Whereas, samples (n=25) of healthy control subjects were obtained from University of the Punjab, Lahore. Levels of T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4</sub>, TSH and testosterone in the serum were estimated by ELISA technique. The data obtained was analyzed by applying Un-paired Student “t” test at with significance level of <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05. Graph pad prism version 6.0 software was utilized for statistical interpretation.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Results:</strong> Pronounced (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.0001) decrease of both T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub>, whereas, a significant increase in TSH (<em>P </em>= 0.005) level was evidenced in pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Moreover, a significant decrease (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001) was noted in the level of testosterone in pesticide sprayers as compared to controls.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Pertinently, the pesticides are a potent source of inducing imbalances in T<sub>3</sub>, T<sub>4, </sub>TSH, and testosterone secretion. Pesticide sprayers are, therefore, recommended to use prophylactic measures like wearing face masks and opt safer protocols in order to avoid direct hazardous exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.</p> Nimra Naveed Uswa Javed Bibi Fatima Usama Atiq Shaaf Ahmad Kaleem Maqsood Muhammad A. Iqbal Nabila Roohi Copyright (c) 2023 Nimra Naveed, Uswa Javed, Bibi Fatima, Usama Atiq, Shaaf Ahmad, Kaleem Maqsood, Muhammad Amir Iqbal, Nabila Roohi 2023-05-04 2023-05-04 2023 1 1 6 10.56512/AS.2023.1.e230504 Alpha Lipoic Acid Ameliorates the Artificial Sugar Induced Injury to the Female Reproductive Organs of Mice <p><strong>Background: </strong>High Fructose Corn syrup (HFCS) is one of the most common artificial sweetener widely used in many food stuff. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant that reduces the level of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).</p> <p><strong>Aim of the study:</strong> The aim of the study was to find out, whether alpha lipoic acid can mitigate the toxic effect of High Fructose Corn syrup (HFCS) on the female reproductive organ.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> 30 female mice were equally divided into three groups. Dose group HFCSI was administrated with 25% HFCS, while dose group HFCSII was administrated with 25%HFCS and 35mg/ kg of BW ALA for 30 days. After stipulated time, mice were sacrificed to remove ovaries for the final study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Histological studies showed following defects in the ovaries of dose group CS I i.e. granulosa cells having less intact oocytes, injured primordial follicles, Cysts development, degraded oocyte and a reduced count of follicles and disarrangements of Tunica albuginea and ovarian surface epithelium. While treatment with ALA reduced the ovarian damage by improving the histopathological changes caused by HFCS.</p> <p> <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings of this research project showed that consumption of HFCS resulted in rise in oxidative stress (OS) and distorted ovarian morphology, that is histologically approved. A combined recovery with alpha Lipoic acid has also been evident and found to be more efficient to improve reproductive pathologies, normal count of follicles, oxidative stress (OS), and histopathological score.</p> Hira Ashfaq Asma Rashid Khan Muddasir Hassan Abbasi Asif Mehmood Qureshi Mohammad Waqar Kainat Bilal Khansa Bajwa Copyright (c) 2023 Hira Ashfaq, Asma Rashid Khan, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi, Asif Mehmood Qureshi, Mohammad Waqar, Kainat Bilal, Khansa Bajwa 2023-01-31 2023-01-31 2023 1 1 3 10.56512/AS.2023.1.e230131